Identification of ChIP-seq mapped targets of HP1β due to bombesin/GRP receptor activation
Wang, Q. Tian
Benya, Richard V.
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Epithelial cells lining the adult colon do not normally express gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) or its receptor (GRPR). In contrast, GRP/GRPR can be aberrantly expressed in human colorectal cancer (CRC) including Caco- 2 cells. We have previously shown that GRPR activation results in the up-regulation ofHP1β, an epigeneticmodifier of gene transcription. The aim of this study was to identify the genes whose expression is altered by HP1β subsequent to GRPR activation. We determined HP1β binding positions throughout the genome using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq). After exposure to GRP, we identified 9,625 genomic positions occupied by HP1β. We performed gene microarray analysis on Caco-2 cells in the absence and presence of a GRPR specific antagonist as well as siRNA to HP1β. The expression of 97 genes was altered subsequent to GRPR antagonism, while the expression of 473 genes was altered by HP1β siRNA exposure. When these data were evaluated in concert with our ChIP-seq findings, 9 genes showed evidence of possible altered expression as a function of GRPR signaling via HP1β. Of these, genomic PCR of immunoprecipitated chromatin demonstrated that GRPR signaling affected the expression of IL1RAPL2, FAM13A, GBE1, PLK3, and SLCO1B3. These findings provide the first evidence by which GRPR aberrantly expressed in CRC might affect tumor progression.