Pathogenic Role of Store-Operated and Receptor-Operated Ca2+ Channels in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Fernandez, Ruby A.
Smith, Kimberly A.
Zeifman, Amy S.
Drennan, Abigail R.
Yuan, Jason X.-J.
PublisherHindawi Publishing Corporation
MetadataShow full item record
Pulmonary circulation is an important circulatory system in which the body brings in oxygen. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive and fatal disease that predominantly affects women. Sustained pulmonary vasoconstriction, excessive pulmonary vascular remodeling, in situ thrombosis, and increased pulmonary vascular stiffness are the major causes for the elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in patients with PAH. The elevated PVR causes an increase in afterload in the right ventricle, leading to right ventricular hypertrophy, right heart failure, and eventually death. Understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of PAH is important for developing more effective therapeutic approach for the disease. An increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC) is a major trigger for pulmonary vasoconstriction and an important stimulus for PASMC migration and proliferation which lead to pulmonary vascular wall thickening and remodeling. It is thus pertinent to define the pathogenic role of Ca2+ signaling in pulmonary vasoconstriction and PASMC proliferation to develop new therapies for PAH. [Ca2+]cyt in PASMC is increased by Ca2+ influx through Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane and by Ca2+ release or mobilization from the intracellular stores, such as sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) or endoplasmic reticulum (ER). There are two Ca2+ entry pathways, voltage-dependent Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCC) and voltage-independent Ca2+ influx through store-operated Ca2+ channels (SOC) and receptor-operated Ca2+ channels (ROC). This paper will focus on the potential role of VDCC, SOC, and ROC in the development and progression of sustained pulmonary vasoconstriction and excessive pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH.