Longitudinal measurement of self-control in children undergoing orthodontic treatment
Bullwinkel, Kathryn S.
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Hypothesis: Regular, mandatory acts of taking care of orthodontic appliances will increase self-control and self-efficacy in adolescents. Methods: Twenty-two patients between the ages of 10-15 years old were recruited from the University of Illinois at Chicago and divided into two groups: Group 1 (n=12) began orthodontics immediately and Group 2 (n=10) waited 4-6 weeks to begin orthodontic treatment. Both groups completed a series of questionnaires and laboratory procedure at timepoints 0 (baseline), 1 (4-6 weeks), and 2 (6-8 weeks). The questionnaires consisted of the Orthodontic Self-efficacy Scale, the General Self-efficacy Scale, and the Parental Questionnaire. The laboratory procedure consisted of two timed hand-grip tasks with an intervening thought suppression task. Results: No statistically significant differences in hand-grip task times, General Self-Efficacy Scale or Parental Questionnaire responses were found for either group. Group 1 Orthodontic Self-Efficacy Scale responses were statistically significant for question 3 (Brush my teeth three times a day), question 4 (Brush my teeth when I am tired), question 6 (Brush my teeth without my parents reminding me), question 7 (Brush my teeth if I am very busy),and question 15 (If asked, wear rubber bands all the time) at p≤.05. No statistically significant change was found in Orthodontic Self-efficacy responses for Group 2. Conclusions: Change in self-regulatory capacity with orthodontic treatment was not found to be significant in our study. Study results suggest that patient self-efficacy may increase in adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment between initial appliance placement and the second adjustment appointment. Funding: UIC College of Dentistry IRB/ACCC protocol: #2012-1023