In Vivo Pharmacokinetic Model For The Design of Bottom-up Engineered Biocompatible Nanopharmaceuticals
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The field of pharmaceutical agent development is a vast one. Since the discovery of nanoparticles with unique properties they have been speculated to hold cures to many biological problems facing researchers today. These nanoparticles are small enough to move freely throughout the bloodstream and be evacuated easily as well as occasionally be able to pass through the bilayer of cells and interact with the intracellular environment. These nanoparticles also hold unique physical and chemical properties that allow them to serve unique purposes in the body as well. It is due to this that a pharmacological model is necessary to improve the toxicity profile of new engineered nanoparticles. This study aims to evaluate the experimental research of the last 50 years and elucidate a full-scale pharmacokinetic model and toxicity profile for engineered nanoparticles. It will review biodistribution studies and toxicity studies for C60 fullerenes and their derivatives, carbon nanotubes, silver nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, liposomes, nanodiamonds, quantum dots and diamondoids. The results of this research has led to the creation and revisitation of many molecular interactions and a set of quantitative cutoffs for engineering safe versions of these nanoparticles as well as a more qualitative model that can be applied to nanoparticles that are to be engineered in the future.