Comprehensive Analysis of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Entry Mediated by Zebrafish 3-O-Sulfotransferase Isoforms: Implications for the Development of a Zebrafish Model of HSV-1 Infection
PublisherAmerican Society for Microbiology
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Binding of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) envelope glycoprotein D (gD) to the receptor 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate (3-OS HS) mediates viral entry. 3-O-Sulfation of HS is catalyzed by the 3-O-sulfotransferase (3-OST) enzyme. Multiple isoforms of 3-OST are differentially expressed in tissues of zebrafish (ZF) embryos. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the role of ZF 3-OST isoforms (3-OST-1, 3-OST-5, 3-OST-6, and 3-OST-7) in HSV-1 entry. We found that a group of 3-OST gene family isoforms (3-OST-2, -3, -4, and -6) with conserved catalytic and substrate-binding residues of the enzyme mediates HSV-1 entry and spread, while the other group (3-OST-1, -5, and -7) lacks these properties. These results demonstrate that HSV-1 entry can be recapitulated by certain ZF 3-OST enzymes, a significant step toward the establishment of a ZF model of HSV-1 infection and tissue-specific tropism.