Application of Mobility Spectrum Analysis to Modern Multi-layered IR Device Material
Brown, Alexander E.
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Modern detector materials used for infrared (IR) imaging purposes contain complex multi-layered architectures, making more robust characterization techniques necessary. In order to determine mutli-carrier transport properties in the presence of mixed conduction, variable-field Hall characterization can be performed and then analyzed using mobility spectrum analysis to extract parameters of interest. Transport parameters are expected to aid in modeling and simulation of materials and can be used in optimization of particular problem areas. The performances of infrared devices ultimately depend on transport mechanisms, so an accurate determination becomes paramount. This work focuses on the characterization of two materials at the forefront of IR detectors; incumbent, tried and true, HgCdTe technologies and emergent III-V based superlattice structures holding much promise for future detector purposes. Ex-situ doped long-wave planar devices and in-situ doped mid-wave dual-layer heterojunctions (P+/n architecture) HgCdTe structures are explored with regards to substrate choice, namely lattice-matched CdZnTe and lattice-mismatched Si or GaAs. A detailed study of scattering mechanisms reveal that growth on lattice-mismatched substrates leads to dislocation scattering limited mobility at low temperature, correlating with extrinsically limited minority carrier lifetime and excesses diode tunneling current, resulting in overall lower performance. Mobility spectrum analysis proves to be an effective diagnostic on performance as well as providing insight in surface, substrate-interface, and minority carrier transport. Two main issues limiting performance of III-V based superlattices are addressed; high residual doping backgrounds and surface passivation. Mobility spectrum analysis proves to be a reliable method of determining background doping levels. Modest improvements are obtained via post-growth thermal annealing, but results suggest future efforts should be placed upon growth improvements. Passivation efforts using charged electret dielectric show promise but further refinements would be needed. Thiol passivation is identified as a successful passivant of Be-doped p-type InAs/GaSb long-wave absorbers using mobility spectrum analysis, correlating with fabricated device dark current. Mobility spectrum analysis demonstrates it will be indispensable in future development of III-V material.
SubjectMobility Spectrum Analysis