Predictors of sperm recovery after cryopreservation in testicular cancer.
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Our objective was to identify predictors of improved postthaw semen quality in men with testicular cancer banking sperm for fertility preservation. We reviewed 173 individual semen samples provided by 67 men with testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) who cryopreserved sperm before gonadotoxic treatment between 1994 and 2010 at our tertiary university medical center. Our main outcomes measures were independent predictors for the greater postthaw total motile count (TMC) in men with TGCT. Men with NSGCT were more likely to be younger (P < 0.01) and had high cancer stage (II or III, P < 0.01) compared with men with seminoma. In our multiple regression model, NSGCT histology, use of density gradient purification, and fresh TMC > median fresh TMC each had increased odds of a postthaw TMC greater than median postthaw TMC. Interestingly, age, advanced cancer stage (II or III), rapid freezing protocol, and motility enhancer did not show increased odds of improved postthaw TMC in our models. In conclusion, men with TGCT or poor fresh TMC should consider preserving additional vials (at least 15 vials) before oncologic treatment. Density gradient purification should be routinely used to optimize postthaw TMC in men with TGCT. Larger, randomized studies evaluating cancer stage and various cryopreservation techniques are needed to assist in counseling men with TGCT regarding fertility preservation and optimizing cryosurvival.