Cross-Border Alliances and Risk Management
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We study U.S. firms’ foreign expansion choices, and investigate alliances as risk management devices used to mitigate partner risk. Firms venturing abroad are constrained by the availability of potential partners. One set of partners are foreign companies the firm shares the venture with (direct partners). The second set of partners is the institutions/government of the host country (indirect partners). Firms are more likely to choose alliances (over M&As) when indirect (direct) partner risk is high (low). The sensitivity to direct partner risk varies in the cross-section, and is weakened by firm’s financial constraints and/or greater ease of monitoring foreign partners.
SubjectCross-border Alliances and M&As