S100B Raises the Alert in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.
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Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease with high mortality and mobility, the novel therapeutic strategies of which are essentially required. The calcium binding protein S100B has emerged as a brain injury biomarker that is implicated in pathogenic process of SAH. S100B is mainly expressed in astrocytes of the central nervous system and functions through initiating intracellular signaling or via interacting with cell surface receptor, such as the receptor of advanced glycation end products. The biological roles of S100B in neurons have been closely associated with its concentrations, resulting in either neuroprotection or neurotoxicity. The levels of S100B in the blood have been suggested as a biomarker to predict the progress or the prognosis of SAH. The role of S100B in the development of cerebral vasospasm and brain damage may result from the induction of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation after SAH. To get further insight into mechanisms underlying the role of S100B in SAH based on this review might help us to find novel therapeutic targets for SAH.
nuclear factor-kappa B
phosphoinositide 3 kinase
receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE)