Chondroitin sulfatases differentially regulate Wnt signaling in prostate stem cells through effects on SHP2, phospho-ERK1/2, and Dickkopf Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor (DKK3)
Tobacman, Joanne, K.
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The chondroitin sulfatases N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase (ARSB) and galactosamine-N-acetyl-6-sulfatase (GALNS) remove either the 4-sulfate group at the non-reducing end of chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S) and dermatan sulfate, or the 6-sulfate group of chondroitin 6-sulfate, chondroitin 4,6-disulfate (chondroitin sulfate E), or keratan sulfate. In human prostate cancer tissues, the ARSB activity was reduced and the GALNS activity was increased, compared to normal prostate tissue. In human prostate stem cells, when ARSB was reduced by silencing or GALNS was increased by overexpression, activity of SHP2, the ubiquitous non-receptor tyrosine phosphatase, declined, attributable to increased binding of SHP2 with C4S. This led to increases in phospho-ERK1/2, Myc/Max nuclear DNA binding, DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and expression, and methylation of the Dickkopf Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor (DKK)3 promoter and to reduced DKK3 expression. Since DKK3 negatively regulates Wnt/β-catenin signaling, silencing of ARSB or overexpression of GALNS disinhibited (increased) Wnt/β-catenin signaling. These findings indicate that the chondroitin sulfatases can exert profound effects on Wnt-mediated processes, due to epigenetic effects that modulate Wnt signaling.