## Nuclear norm of higher-order tensors

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##### Date

2016-11##### Author

Friedland, Shmuel

Lim, Lek-Heng

##### Publisher

American Mathematical Society##### Metadata

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We establish several mathematical and computational properties of the nuclear norm for higher-order tensors. We show that like tensor rank, tensor nuclear norm is dependent on the choice of base field --- the value of the nuclear norm of a real 3-tensor depends on whether we regard it as a real 3-tensor or a complex 3-tensor with real entries. We show that every tensor has a nuclear norm attaining decomposition and every symmetric tensor has a symmetric nuclear norm attaining decomposition. There is a corresponding notion of nuclear rank that, unlike tensor rank, is upper semicontinuous. We establish an analogue of Banach's theorem for tensor spectral norm and Comon's conjecture for tensor rank --- for a symmetric tensor, its symmetric nuclear norm always equals its nuclear norm. We show that computing tensor nuclear norm is NP-hard in several sense. Deciding weak membership in the nuclear norm unit ball of 3-tensors is NP-hard, as is finding an $\varepsilon$-approximation of nuclear norm for 3-tensors. In addition, the problem of computing spectral or nuclear norm of a 4-tensor is NP-hard, even if we restrict the 4-tensor to be bi-Hermitian, bisymmetric, positive semidefinite, nonnegative valued, or all of the above. We discuss some simple polynomial-time approximation bounds. As an aside, we show that the nuclear $(p,q)$-norm of a matrix is NP-hard in general but can be computed in polynomial-time if $p=1$, $q = 1$, or $p=q=2$, with closed-form expressions for the nuclear $(1,q)$- and $(p,1)$-norms.