Distant and Local Redistribution of Oral Bacteria Associated With Periodontitis
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It is documented that periodontitis is commonly associated with changes in localization and proliferation of a variety of oral bacteria. However, it is not clear if there are changes in the oral bacteria localized to oral mucosa while chronic infections such as periodontal diseases are present. A demonstration of this relationship could give us insight into the connection between inflammation and the bacterial species in the oral cavity. Recent laboratory findings show oral bacteria such as Streptococcus species will alter their adherence capacity and bind to oral keratinocytes, especially when tobacco or alcohol are present. Tobacco has also been associated with enhanced incidence and severity of periodontal diseases. Multigenomic identification was used to evaluate 12 subjects and 10 controls for the types of oral bacteria present on the tongue in comparison to gingiva from a periodontitis site (e.g., site of attachment loss) and from a non-periodontitis site (e.g., no evidence of attachment loss). The data showed that in patients with periodontitis, an average of 52.4 +/- 18.7 different bacterium species were identified on the tongue and an average of 15.9 +/- 4.8 of these were Streptococcus species. The control subjects had an average of 23.1 +/- 9.4 bacterium species on the tongue and an average of 11.1 +/- 2.99 of these were Streptococcus species. Gingival samples showed a similar trend. However, 57% of the bacteria at a 60% level of identification frequency were non-Streptococcus species, while control non-periodontitis subjects exhibited a 33% identification frequency of non-Streptococcus species. Current tobacco users also showed a few novel species found on the tongue that were not present in non-smokers. This study demonstrates a trend of bacteria distribution changes among individuals with active bone loss associated with periodontitis. We suggest this bacterial distribution modification is anticipated to effect integrity of tongue mucosa.